1147 – First historical record of Moscow.
1768 – In London, Philip Astley stages the first modern circus.
1812 – United States President James Madison enacts a ninety-day embargo on trade with the United Kingdom.
1818 – The United States Congress adopts the flag of the United States with 13 red and white stripes and one star for each state (then 20).
1841 – William Henry Harrison, American general and politician, 9th President of the United States (b. 1773) dies.
1850 – Los Angeles is incorporated as a city.
1865 – American Civil War: A day after Union forces capture Richmond, Virginia, U.S. President Abraham Lincoln visits the Confederate capital.
1873 – The Kennel Club is founded, the oldest and first official registry of purebred dogs in the world.
1912 – Isaac K. Funk, American minister, lexicographer, and publisher, co-founded Funk & Wagnalls (b. 1839) dies.
1932 – Clive Davis, American record producer, founded Arista Records and J Records is born.
1929 – Karl Benz, German engineer and businessman, founded Mercedes-Benz (b. 1844) dies.
1931 – André Michelin, French businessman, co-founded the Michelin Tyre Company (b. 1853) dies.
1933 – U.S. Navy airship, USS Akron, is wrecked off the New Jersey coast due to severe weather.
1949 – Twelve nations sign the North Atlantic Treaty creating the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
1964 – The Beatles occupy the top five positions on the Billboard Hot 100 pop chart.
1965 – Robert Downey Jr., American actor, producer, and screenwriter is born.
1967 – Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his "Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence" speech in New York City's Riverside Church.
1968 – Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated by James Earl Ray at a motel in Memphis, Tennessee.
1969 – Dr. Denton Cooley implants the first temporary artificial heart.
1973 – The World Trade Center in New York is officially dedicated.
1975 – Microsoft is founded as a partnership between Bill Gates and Paul Allen in Albuquerque, New Mexico
1983 – Space Shuttle Challenger makes its maiden voyage into space.
1984 – President Ronald Reagan calls for an international ban on chemical weapons.
1988 – Governor Evan Mecham of Arizona is convicted in his impeachment trial and removed from office.
1991 – Senator John Heinz of Pennsylvania and six others are killed when a helicopter collides with their airplane over an elementary school in Merion, Pennsylvania.
1993 – Alfred Mosher Butts, American game designer, invented Scrabble (b. 1899) dies.
1996 – Austin Mahone, American singer-songwriter and actor is born.
2013 – Roger Ebert, American journalist, critic, and screenwriter (b. 1942) dies.