1743 – Thomas Jefferson, American lawyer and politician, 3rd President of the United States (d. 1826) is born.
1777 – American Revolutionary War: American forces are ambushed and defeated in the Battle of Bound Brook, New Jersey.
1852 – Frank Winfield Woolworth, American businessman, founded the F. W. Woolworth Company (d. 1919) is born.
1861 – American Civil War: Fort Sumter surrenders to Confederate forces.
1865 – American Civil War: Raleigh, North Carolina is occupied by Union Forces.
1870 – The New York City Metropolitan Museum of Art is founded.
1873 – The Colfax massacre, in which more than 60 African Americans are murdered, takes place.
1886 – John Humphrey Noyes, American religious leader, founded the Oneida Community (b. 1811) dies.
1899 – Alfred Mosher Butts, American architect and game designer, created Scrabble (d. 1993) is born.
1902 – James C. Penney opens his first store in Kemmerer, Wyoming.
1916 – Phyllis Fraser, American actress, journalist, and publisher, co-founded Beginner Books (d. 2006) is born.
1919 – Eugene V. Debs is imprisoned at the Atlanta Federal Penitentiary in Atlanta, Georgia, for speaking out against the draft during World War I.
1943 – The Jefferson Memorial is dedicated in Washington, D.C., on the 200th anniversary of President Thomas Jefferson's birth.
1958 – Cold War: American Van Cliburn wins the inaugural International Tchaikovsky Competition in Moscow.
1960 – The United States launches Transit 1-B, the world's first satellite navigation system.
1963 – Garry Kasparov, Russian chess player and author is born.
1964 – Davis Love III, American golfer and sportscaster is born.
1964 – At the Academy Awards, Sidney Poitier becomes the first African-American male to win the Best Actor award for the 1963 film Lilies of the Field.
1970 – An oxygen tank aboard Apollo 13 explodes, putting the crew in great danger and causing major damage to the spacecraft while en route to the Moon.
1974 – Western Union (in cooperation with NASA and Hughes Aircraft) launches the United States' first commercial geosynchronous communications satellite, Westar 1.
1976 – The United States Treasury Department reintroduces the two-dollar bill as a Federal Reserve Note on Thomas Jefferson's 233rd birthday as part of the United States Bicentennial celebration.
1992 – The Great Chicago flood devastates much of central Chicago.
1997 – Tiger Woods becomes the youngest golfer to win the Masters Tournament.
1997 – Bryant Bowles, American soldier and activist, founded the National Association for the Advancement of White People (b. 1920) dies.